Viladge Chernusheno Ч one of the mysterious and little-known toy centres in Russia. Long was considered, that the craft in Chernusheno has stopped the existence in the thirtieth years of the twentieth century, actually toys in Chernusheno viladge moulded down to the end of the fiftieth years.
Picturesque viladge, located not far from cities Novosile (one of most ancient on the Oryol ground) was long since glorified Ч toymakers. In viladge Chernosheno lived the peasants, and to the basic income they added earnings from what or craft. On the usual tradition country woman nothing received on the charges from the husband and used means from sale of dairy products, yarn, canvas, toys. It was the female craft, the men never did(made) of toys.
Clay in these places unusual, viscous. Took in its(her) early spring stored(kept) in a cellar or in other cold places. After manufacturing a toy long dried on tops of furnaces. Burnt in general(common) horn, for every burning prepared new horn. Painted toys by mineral and aniline paints bird's пером from a tail of the cock. Sold them only at two spring fairs, during holidays Prepoloveniaya and Troicha.
The plots of chernushens toys are traditional: the woman, skates, bird. The men meet seldom, basically as an appendage to коню. Makers of birds named as "cuckooes", for what in the people them have nicknamed "black cocks".
The image a cuckoo is closely connected to customs anlegends of our far ancestors. The cuckoo Ч "gods" bird, prophesy foretold terms of life of death, and also destiny not only man, but also natural phenomena. The cuckoo represented the bird's image of a female deity allocated secret force of a prophecy, that results initially in a cult of the god of a Sort.
The cuckooes " were kept in these places surprising spring обряд " Christening and funeral. The maidens youngs in " cuckoos time " with Going up to Spirit of the day (Troicha) were united in secret union among themselves and maximum force in an image a cuckoo.
In the beginning of May the ancient slavs Ч pagans worshipped the Great Goddess, asked " long-term and safe health ".
The victims by were especially brought to it(her) what heard the first singing cuckooes Thought, that greatest owner installed turned to a cuckoo and itself foretold continuation of life. Therefore murdering a cuckoo was considered as a crime ". (And. јphanasev)
The cuckoo protected cattle and patronized economic employment(occupations). The peasants asked: " a cuckoo, cockoo my cattle! ". The beekeepers bore(carried) in a victim a water first plenty, for what that in the award gave them a cuckoo, which should secretly be planted(put) in a separate beehive. That the bees were found.
The herb " cockoos tears " participated in conjugal ceremony. Youngs on a root of this herb guessed about the future a field of the child, saw broth of roots sentencing a spell: " a cuckoo give birth to my son Ч daughter ".
Chernushevsks toy craft is closely connected with beliving and ceremonys of novosils peasants. Poultries they are not moulded, list of toys reminds оперение of an alive cuckoo. Probably, the cult a cuckoo has influenced a list of other toys of this craft Ч of skates Ч penny whistles, cows, sheeps, riders, the dolls Ч all of them also are plentifully decorated alternating strips.
The form of skates Ч penny whistles(so named all animals) rather conditional: приземистые, clumsy extended case, small legs Ч knobs, extended necks and tiny simplified of the head faster reminding prehistorical dinosaurs.
Are especially good Chernushens dols Ч an old woman, feeders. Headgears, the list of clothes reminds costumes XIX of a beginning XX of centuries. But despite of these later details, it(she) managed to keep, to carry by through thousand years the most ancient symbol connected to a cult of fertility Ч precisely exposed having breasts. This attribute speaks besides about pagan origin of Chernushens toy, when she(it) was not a subject of an entertainment, and subject of a cult which roots leave in ancient matriarchy and in slavic patrimonial reverence of the Births.
All world of animals and birds accompanied with concept " the sky Ч the sun " and bread winner of ground of the Great Mother. " It is obvious this central figure slavic Olimp the goddess Ч the patroness in support коней, goats, birds " (V.V Haruzdina) represented at one time clay female figure Ч. All this to the full concerns to chernushens toy.
The works of chernushens makers are stored in museums of our country and behind boundaries.
Right at the beginning of our century in this craft was engaged in Chernusheno viladge significant quantity(amount) of the women, but as soon as the factory toy has appeared, local manufacture began to be reduced. Per the thirtieth years the toy was moulded by(with) the women: Chumiceva P.P, its(her) daughter Ч Fomina jr., Klinins items, Alenkinas etc. After war continued to making a toy Aphanasova A. and Shelayaeva E. D.till the 50s.
Now in revival chrnushens craft the national foreman Frolova Natalaya of Nikolaev (1955) and its(her) daughter Anna (1983 year birth is engaged.) again beginnings to mould toys Aphanasova Anna Haritonovna.
The Frolovs work were submitted at exhibitions and festivals at us in the country, and also in Germany, France, Italy, Norway and USA.